The Link between Nutritional Status and Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients in ICU: Is Obesity or Sarcopenia the Real Problem? - A. Molfino, G. Imbimbo, V. Rizzo, M. Muscaritoli & D. Alampi - European Journal of Internal Medicine (02 Jul 2021):
"Our study confirmed, in a small cohort of COVID-19 patients in ICU, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as a high percentage of individuals affected by metabolic syndrome (more than 50%). Moreover, in line with previous larger evidences, the most common comorbidity in our cohort was represented by essential hypertension. [...] In conclusion, our study although exploratory, suggests the importance of the evaluation of muscle mass in COVID-19 patients in ICU to better stratify the risk of complications, and likely mortality, and to implement nutritional strategies in this setting. Larger trials are mandatory to confirm our initial results."
The Role of Nutrition in COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severity of Disease: A Systematic Review Philip T. James, Zakari Ali, Andrew E. Armitage, Ana Bonell, Carla Cerami, Hal Drakesmith, Modou Jobe, Kerry S. Jones, Zara Liew, Sophie E. Moore, Fernanda Morales-Berstein, Helen M. Nabwera, Behzad Nadjm, Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Pauline Scheelbeek, Matt J. Silver, Megan R. Teh & Andrew M. Prentice - The Journal of Nutrition (1 July 2021):
"Many nutrients have powerful immunomodulatory actions with the potential to alter susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, progression to symptoms, likelihood of severe disease, and survival. [...] However, results of clinical trials are eagerly awaited. Given the known impacts of all forms of malnutrition on the immune system, public health strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition remain of critical importance. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes will reduce the risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes."
COVID-19: Role of Nutrition and Supplementation - Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Francesco Sessa, Anna Valenzano, Rita Polito, Vincenzo Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Ines Villano, Daniela Pisanelli, Michela Perrella, Aurora Daniele, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina & Antonietta Messina - Nutrients (17 Mar 2021):
"Moreover, analyzing the data about COVID-19 patients, it is well described that the worst outcomes occur in subjects with one or more comorbidities. Furthermore, each comorbidity is strictly related to metabolic diseases: For example, the overweight or obese subject has a high risk of developing the severe form of SARS-CoV-2 infection. For these reasons, it is important to take into account the influence of lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy diets, on COVID-19 susceptibility and recovery. In addition, the large number of subjects who recover from COVID-19 could lead to a spike in chronic medical diseases. These conditions could be further exacerbated by a poor diet regimen. Therefore, in consideration of the data discussed in this review, it should be recommended that subjects should avoid eating foods containing high amounts of saturated fat and sugar; contrariwise, it is desirable that they consume high amounts of fiber, whole grains, unsaturated fats, and antioxidants to enhance immune function."
"Considering this particular scenario, we present a literature review addressing several important aspects related to diet and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to highlight the importance of diet and supplementation in prevention and management of, as well as recovery from COVID-19. [...] Finally, during the pandemic period, the introduction of different countermeasures such as the “lockdown”, long-term quarantine in cases of suspected or confirmed COVID-19, could generate the adoption of unhealthy eating habits, increasing the risk of non-communicable diseases in the middle-long term."
Region-specific COVID-19 Risk Scores and Nutritional Status of a High-risk Population based on Individual Vulnerability Assessment in the National Survey Data - Inkyung Baik - Clinical Nutrition (23 Feb 2021):
"Nonetheless, poor nutritional status was reportedly observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly in severe cases, and associated with mortality. The link between nutrition and COVID-19 infection may be explained by the role of specific nutrients in overall immune function and the influence of infectious disease on dietary intake and nutrient requirement. So far, data on nutritional status of individuals who are not yet exposed to the infection but potentially vulnerable to COVID-19 have not been reported."
"The present study found that roughly one-in-five individuals with high-risk scores have inadequate intake of several vitamins including vitamins A and C, which are essential to maintain immune function. These high-risk individuals are expected to be more vulnerable to Coronavirus infection and likely to have severe illness if they acquire the infection. It is well known that patients with malnutrition have longer lengths of hospital stay and an increased risk of mortality. [...] These results suggest that individuals vulnerable to COVID-19, in particular those are living in densely populated regions, should pay particular attention to the protection against this pandemic and have adequate nutritional status, which may support optimal immune function."
Impact of Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Nutritional Status and Subjective Functional Loss in a Prospective Cohort of COVID-19 Survivors - Didier Quilliot, Marine Gérard, Olivier Bonsack, Aurélie Malgras, Marie-France Vaillant, Paolo Di Patrizio, Roland Jaussaud, Olivier Ziegler & Phi-Linh Nguyen-Thi - BMJ Open / Infectious Diseases (2021):
"Patients who survived a severe form of COVID-19 had a high risk of persistent malnutrition, functional loss and severe disability at D30. We believe that nutritional support and rehabilitation should be strengthened, particularly for male patients who were admitted in ICU and had subjective functional loss at discharge."
Rethinking Urban and Food Policies to Improve Citizens' Safety after COVID-19 Pandemic - Andrea Galimberti, Hellas Cena, Luca Campone, Emanuele Ferri, Mario Dell'Agli, Enrico Sangiovanni, Michael Belingheri, Michele A. Riva, Maurizio Casiraghi & Massimo Labra - Frontiers in Nutrition (8 Oct. 2020):
“However, a still neglected issue regards the adoption of a more systemic approach considering the close connection among the infection, the environment, and human behaviors, including the role of diet and urban management. To shed light on this issue, we brought together a faculty group involving experts in environment and biodiversity, food safety, human nutrition and behavior, bioprospecting, as well as medical doctors having a deep knowledge of the complex historical relationship between humanity and vector-borne infections.”
Antiviral Functional Foods and Exercise Lifestyle Prevention of Coronavirus - Ahmad Alkhatib - Nutrients (28 Aug. 2020):
"Functional foods prevention of non-communicable disease can be translated into protecting against respiratory viral infections and COVID-19. Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper. Foods with antiviral properties include fruits, vegetables, fermented foods and probiotics, olive oil, fish, nuts and seeds, herbs, roots, fungi, amino acids, peptides, and cyclotides."
Fears grow of Nutritional Crisis in Lockdown UK - Chris Baraniuk - BMJ (20 Aug 2020):
"This Government’s “call to action” fails to identify creative and new approaches to tackle the major and fundamental public health and nutritional problems. While the simplistic focus on calorie counting and on dietary fat, sugar and salt may achieve some success in reducing obesity, the drive to provide information for people to make healthier food choices should take more account of the complex interplay of foods, patterns of eating behaviours and diet quality. The Government’s strategy barely mentions the roles of the essential micronutrients needed for health and for supporting the immune functions, energy balance for long-term health, weight maintenance and metabolic health, or which foods are considered beneficial to health."
"Educational efforts to increase awareness of good nutrition should focus on nutrient-dense foods, optimal dietary patterns and overall diet quality. The Government’s strategy should shift from secondary prevention and dieting for weight loss to primary prevention and avoidance of long-term weight gain in targeted population groups."
Phytotherapeutic Options for the Treatment of COVID‐19: A Concise Viewpoint - Misbahud Din, Fawad Ali, Abdul Waris, Fatima Zia & Muhammad Ali - Phytotherapy Research (20 Aug. 2020):
“This study was aimed to briefly describe the potential use of ethno‐medicinal research in searching new therapeutic options against COVID‐19 and other coronaviruses and to provide some important directions to researcher for planning future studies. We have summarized various medicinal plants and their reported antiviral activities.”
Nutritional Status of Patients with COVID-19 - Jae Hyoung Im, Young Soo Je, Jihyeon Baek, Moon-Hyun Chung, Hea Yoon Kwon & Jin-Soo Lee - International Journal of Infectious Diseases (11 Aug 2020):
"These results suggest that a deficiency of vitamin D or selenium may decrease the immune defenses against COVID-19 and cause progression to severe disease. However, more precise and large-scale studies are needed."
Enhancing Immunity in Viral Infections, with Special Emphasis on COVID-19: A Review - Ranil Jayawardena, Piumika Sooriyaarachchi, Michail Chourdakis, Chandima Jeewandara & Priyanga Ranasinghe - Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome (Jul-Aug. 2020):
“Balanced nutrition which can help in maintaining immunity is essential for prevention and management of viral infections. While data regarding nutrition in coronavirus infection (COVID-19) are not available, in this review, we aimed to evaluate evidence from previous clinical trials that studied nutrition-based interventions for viral diseases (with special emphasis on respiratory infections), and summarise our observations.”
Potential Role of Medicinal Plants and their Constituents in the Mitigation of SARS-CoV-2: identifying Related Therapeutic Targets using Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking Analyses - Eman Shawky, Ahmed A. Nada & Reham S. Ibrahim - RSC Advances (27 Jul. 2020):
"Many of the medicinal plants and their constituents have a potential for use in the mitigation of the new SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, a database comprised of more than 16,500 compounds was screened against the three viral targets 3CLpro, PLpro and RdRp, and several constituents identified may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 activity through inhibition of virus replication."
Dietary Therapy and Herbal Medicine for COVID-19 Prevention: A Review and Perspective - Suraphan Panyod, Chi-Tang Ho & Lee-Yan Sheen - Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (Jul. 2020):
“The volume of existing reports is irrefutable evidence that foods and herbs possess a potential antiviral ability against SARS-CoV-2 and can prevent COVID-19. Foods and herbs could be used as dietary or complementary therapy to prevent infection and strengthen immunity. [...] Current literature provides obvious evidence supporting dietary therapy and herbal medicine as potential effective antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 and as preventive agents against COVID-19. Thus, dietary therapy and herbal medicine could be a complementary preventive therapy for COVID-19.”
Dietary Micronutrients in the wake of COVID-19: An Appraisal of Evidence with a Focus on High-Risk Groups and Preventative Healthcare - Shane McAuliffe, Sumantra Ray, Emily Fallon, James Bradfield, Timothy Eden & Martin Kohlmeier - BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health (18 Jun. 2020):
“Existing micronutrient deficiencies, even if only a single micronutrient, can impair immune function and increase susceptibility to infectious disease. Certain population groups are more likely to have micronutrient deficiencies, while certain disease pathologies and treatment practices also exacerbate risk, meaning these groups tend to suffer increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Optimisation of overall nutritional status, including micronutrients, can be effective in reducing incidence of infectious disease.”
Natural Products' Role against COVID-19 - Ananda da Silva Antonio, Larissa Silveira Moreira Wiedemann and Valdir Florêncio Veiga-Junior - RSC Advances (19 Jun. 2020):
"Bioactivities of natural products have been widely applied in pharmaceutical industry and ethnobotany, such as inflammation, cancer, oxidative process and viral infections. Several antiviral bioproducts have already been described by the activity against Dengue virus, Coronavirus, Enterovirus, Hepatitis B, Influenza virus and HIV. Thus, bioproducts could be friends in the fight against SARS-CoV-2, through enabling the development of specific chemotherapies to COVID-19. In this paper, we provide insights on the potential of bioproducts in face of this new threat."
COVID-19: The Inflammation Link and the Role of Nutrition in Potential Mitigation - Ioannis Zabetakis, Ronan Lordan, Catherine Norton & Alexandros Tsoupras - Nutrients (19 May 2020)
"Furthermore, nutritional status and the role of diet and lifestyle is considered, as it is known to affect patient outcomes in other severe infections and may play a role in COVID-19 infection. This review speculates the importance of nutrition as a mitigation strategy to support immune function amid the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying food groups and key nutrients of importance that may affect the outcomes of respiratory infections."
Nutrition, Immunity and COVID-19 - Philip C. Calder - BMJ Nutrition Prevention and Health (20 May 2020):
"A number of vitamins (A, B6, B12, folate, C, D and E) and trace elements (zinc, copper, selenium, iron) have been demonstrated to have key roles in supporting the human immune system and reducing risk of infections. Other essential nutrients including other vitamins and trace elements, amino acids and fatty acids are also important. Each of the nutrients named above has roles in supporting antibacterial and antiviral defence, but zinc and selenium seem to be particularly important for the latter. It would seem prudent for individuals to consume sufficient amounts of essential nutrients to support their immune system to help them deal with pathogens should they become infected. The gut microbiota plays a role in educating and regulating the immune system. Gut dysbiosis is a feature of disease including many infectious diseases and has been described in COVID-19. Dietary approaches to achieve a healthy microbiota can also benefit the immune system. Severe infection of the respiratory epithelium can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterised by excessive and damaging host inflammation, termed a cytokine storm. This is seen in cases of severe COVID-19. There is evidence from ARDS in other settings that the cytokine storm can be controlled by n-3 fatty acids, possibly through their metabolism to specialised pro-resolving mediators."
Essential Oils as Antiviral Agents, Potential of Essential Oils to Treat SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An In-Silico Investigation - Joyce Kelly R. da Silva, Pablo Luis Baia Figueiredo, Kendall G. Byler & William N. Setzer - International Journal of Molecular Sciences (12 May 2020):
“Essential oils have shown promise as antiviral agents against several pathogenic viruses. In this work we hypothesized that essential oil components may interact with key protein targets of the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). [...] [E]ssential oil components may act synergistically, essential oils may potentiate other antiviral agents, or they may provide some relief of COVID-19 symptoms.”
COVID-19: Is there a Role for Immunonutrition, particularly in the Over 65s? - Emma Derbyshire & Joanne Delange - BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health (4 May 2020):
“Within the nutrition sector a promising body of evidence studying inter-relationships between certain nutrients and immune competence already exists. This could potentially be an important player in helping the body to deal with the coronavirus, especially among elders. Evidence for vitamins C, D and zinc and their roles in preventing pneumonia and respiratory infections (vitamins C and D) and reinforcing immunity (zinc) appears to look particularly promising. Ongoing research within this important field is urgently needed.”
Phytotherapic Compounds against Coronaviruses: Possible Streams for Future Research - Michele Antonelli, Davide Donelli, Valentina Maggini & Fabio Firenzuoli - Phytotherapy Research (30 Apr. 2020):
“In conclusion, phytotherapy research can help to explore potentially useful remedies against coronaviruses, and further investigations are recommended to identify and test all possible targets. Globally, herbs with some preliminary evidence of antiviral activity against coronaviruses, along with phytotherapic remedies with immune stimulant properties, appear as good candidates for additional studies on the topic.”
The authors distinguish between two key approaches: (a) Herbal remedies with a potentially preventive effect, mainly acting through a general boost of the immune system; and (b) Herbal remedies with a potentially therapeutic effect, acting through different mechanisms on viral penetration and replication.
Nutritional Status and COVID-19: An Opportunity for Lasting Change? - Shameer Mehta - Clinical Medicine (27 Apr 2020):
"This piece outlines why nutritional status may be particularly compromised during this crisis, among both the population and hospital inpatients. Practical steps to improve nutritional status at a time when hospital services are particularly stretched are also considered. Finally, the case is made for behaviour change at all levels including government, the general population and healthcare professionals."
Nutrition amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: a Multi-level Framework for Action - Farah Naja & Rena Hamadeh - European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (20 April 2020):
"At the individual level, the common denominator that drives most of the nutrition and dietary recommendations to combat viral infections, including COVID-19, lies within the link between diet and immunity. In fact, existing evidence highlights that diet has a profound effect on people’s immune system and disease susceptibility. It has been demonstrated that specific nutrients or nutrient combinations may affect the immune system through the activation of cells, modification in the production of signaling molecules, and gene expression. Furthermore, dietary ingredients are significant determinants of gut microbial composition and consequently can shape the characteristics of immune responses in the body. Nutritional deficiencies of energy, protein, and specific micronutrients are associated with depressed immune function and increased susceptibility to infection. An adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, E, B6, and B12 is predominantly vital for the maintenance of immune function. Therefore, the key to maintaining an effective immune system is to avoid deficiencies of the nutrients that play an essential role in immune cell triggering, interaction, differentiation, or functional expression."
The Impact of Nutrition on COVID-19 Susceptibility and Long-term Consequences - Michael J. Butler & Ruth M. Barrientos - Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (18 Apr 2020):
"In sum, it is critical to consider the impact of lifestyle habits, such as consumption of unhealthy diets, on the susceptibility to COVID-19 and recovery. Furthermore, the large number of people that will recover from COVID-19 may lead to a spike in chronic medical conditions that could be further exacerbated by unhealthy diets or in vulnerable populations. Therefore, it is our recommendation that individuals refrain from eating foods high in saturated fats and sugar and instead consume high amounts of fiber, whole grains, unsaturated fats, and antioxidants to boost immune function."
"While all groups are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the elderly, underrepresented minorities, and those with underlying medical conditions are at the greatest risk. The high rate of consumption of diets high in saturated fats, sugars, and refined carbohydrates (collectively called Western diet, WD) worldwide, contribute to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and could place these populations at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 pathology and mortality. WD consumption activates the innate immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defense against viruses. Furthermore, peripheral inflammation caused by COVID-19 may have long-term consequences in those that recover, leading to chronic medical conditions such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease, likely through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that can be compounded by an unhealthy diet. Thus, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a top priority and individuals should be mindful of healthy eating habits to reduce susceptibility to and long-term complications from COVID-19."
Potential Interventions for Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systematic Review - Lei Zhang & Yunhui Liu - Journal of Medical Virology (13 Feb. 2020):
“In this review, we summarize all the potential interventions for COVID 19 infection according to previous treatments of SARS and MERS. We have found that the general treatments are very important to enhance host immune response against RNA viral infection. The immune response has often been shown to be weakened by inadequate nutrition in many model systems as well as in human studies.”
To learn more about 'Dietary Antivirals' and the 52 dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
The degree to which what we eat is a preventive measure against illnesses is a topic that is presently receiving intense levels of discussion. Whether a diet can maximize vaccination response, even eliminate the need for boosters, is a live issue, especially with the arrival of the '4th Shot'.
The whole world has gradually become aware of the causal impact of dietary choices upon health health - thanks in large part to the World Health Organization's concerted efforts to educate all nations of the world with up-to-date knowledge. 'Obesity' is known to be a major health risk.
In particular, it is of natural interest to the populations of all countries whether by eating certain foods - avoiding others - they might be able to improve their protection against SARS-CoV-2 and become more capable of fighting off COVID-19. An 'Anti-Viral Diet' appears to be a real option.
Although there has been a degree of hesitancy on the part of science to progress to human trials in testing the potential of anti-viral ingredients, an over-abundance of information already exists confirming that anti-viral and immune-supportive chemicals are active in food and drink.
The Signaling Pathways, and Therapeutic Targets of Antiviral Agents: Focusing on the Antiviral Approaches and Clinical Perspectives of Anthocyanins in the Management of Viral Diseases - Pardis Mohammadi Pour, Sajad Fakhri, Sedigheh Asgary, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei & Javier Echeverría - Frontiers in Pharmacology (08 Nov. 2019):
“This is the first review regarding molecular and cellular pathways of the virus life cycle, treatment strategies, and therapeutic targets of several viral diseases with a particular focus on anthocyanins as promising natural compounds for significant antiviral enhancements. Clinical applications and the need to develop nano-formulation of anthocyanins in drug delivery systems are also considered. [...] In the present review, we highlighted the current antiviral approaches and alternative plant-derived antiviral compounds with related pharmacological mechanisms, while tackling particular attention to anthocyanins. We also focused our attention on the need to develop nano-formulation for anthocyanins in drug delivery systems to overcome the limitation with the bioavailability of anthocyanins. The potential of anthocyanin to show its antiviral effects through binding to host cells, inhibiting viral life cycle, or stimulating host immunity, strengthens the idea that anthocyanin would be an essential brick and a potential therapeutic agent to find novel antiviral lead-compounds. [...] Additional studies should include the investigation of other effective and novel plant-derived antiviral lead-compounds, with synergistic effects for a more favorable treatment outcome capable of enhancing immunity and reducing the cost, toxicity, and viral resistance, as well as finding their virus- specific targets and related pharmacological mechanisms of action. Synthetic campaigns could adjust these lead-compounds to find even more efficient drugs against several viral infections. Drug delivery must also be improved by new technologies using novel nano-formulation. Nonetheless, it is crucial to confirm the effects of plant-derived lead-compound in clinical trial studies.”
Diets for Health: Goals and Guidelines - Amy Locke, Jill Schneiderhan & Suzanna M. Zick - American Family Physician (1 Jun. 2018):
“Diet is the single most significant risk factor for disability and premature death. Patients and physicians often have difficulty staying abreast of diet trends, many of which focus primarily on weight loss rather than nutrition and health. Recommending an eating style can help patients make positive change. Dietary patterns that support health include the Mediterranean diet, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and the Healthy Eating Plate. These approaches have benefits that include prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. These dietary patterns are supported by strong evidence that promotes a primary focus on unprocessed foods, fruits and vegetables, plant-based fats and proteins, legumes, whole grains, and nuts. Added sugars should be limited to less than 5% to 10% of daily caloric intake. Vegetables (not including potatoes) and fruits should make up one-half of each meal. Carbohydrate sources should primarily include beans/legumes, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. An emphasis on monounsaturated fats, such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, and omega-3 fatty acids, such as flax, cold-water fish, and nuts, helps prevent cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. A focus on foods rather than macronutrients can assist patients in understanding a healthy diet. Addressing barriers to following a healthy diet and utilizing the entire health care team can assist patients in following these guidelines.”
Fruit and Vegetable Intake and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Total Cancer and All-Cause Mortality — A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies - Dagfinn Aune, Edward Giovannucci, Paolo Boffetta, Lars T. Fadnes, NaNa Keum, Teresa Norat, Darren C. Greenwood, Elio Riboli, Lars J. Vatten & Serena Tonstad - International Journal of Epidemiology (22 Feb. 2017):
“Reductions in risk were observed up to 800 g/day for all outcomes except cancer (600 g/day). Inverse associations were observed between the intake of apples and pears, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and salads and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and between the intake of green-yellow vegetables and cruciferous vegetables and total cancer risk. An estimated 5.6 and 7.8 million premature deaths worldwide in 2013 may be attributable to a fruit and vegetable intake below 500 and 800 g/day, respectively, if the observed associations are causal. - Conclusions: Fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality. These results support public health recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature mortality.”
Phytotherapy: An Introduction to Herbal Medicine - Charles C. Falzon, Anna Balabanova - Primary Care (Jun. 2017):
“Herbal medications are commonly used in all medical settings, making it essential for primary care providers to learn about the products being used and resources they can access for continuing education. Understanding how herbal medicines are sourced, processed, and standardized can help providers guide patients who are trying to choose the most clinically effective and affordable treatments. Multiple herbs are often combined and sold as proprietary blends, which can increase the risk of allergies, adverse reactions, or cross-reactivity with other pharmaceuticals and supplements. Several textbooks, online point-of-care resources, and conferences are available for primary care providers to expand their knowledge of herbal medicines.”
Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils - Akram Astani, Jürgen Reichling & Paul Schnitzler - Evidence Based and Complementary Alternative Medicine (14 Feb. 2014):
“The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the antiviral activity of selected sesquiterpenes, important constituents of essential oils, against HSV-1 and the mode of antiviral action of these sesquiterpenes during the viral multiplication cycle. [...] In conclusion, medicinal and aromatic plants are widely used today in modern phytotherapy. The essential oils and their components are known to be active against a wide variety of microorganisms. Phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity. Drugs with a high SI are preferable for antiviral treatment in patients, thus star anise oil as a complex mixture and β-caryophyllene as single constituent might be applied as topical therapeutic agents in the treatment of recurrent herpes infection.”
Textbook of Clinical Nutrition and Functional Medicine - Alex Vasquez (2016).
Dietetic Practice: The Past, Present and Future - N. Hwalla & M. Koleilat - East Mediterranean Health Journal (Nov. 2004):
“The history of dietetics can be traced as far back as the writings of Homer, Plato and Hippocrates in ancient Greece. Although diet and nutrition continued to be judged important for health, dietetics did not progress much till the 19th century with the advances in chemistry. [...] The growing need for dietetics professionals is driven by a growing public interest in nutrition and the potential of functional foods to prevent a variety of diet-related conditions.”
Novel Antiviral Agents: A Medicinal Plant Perspective - S.A.A. Jassim & M.A. Naji - Journal of Applied Microbiology (18 Jul. 2003):
“Methods are needed to link antiviral efficacy/potency‐ and laboratory‐based research. Nevertheless, the relative success achieved recently using medicinal plant/herb extracts of various species that are capable of acting therapeutically in various viral infections has raised optimism about the future of phyto‐antiviral agents. As this review illustrates, there are innumerable potentially useful medicinal plants and herbs waiting to be evaluated and exploited for therapeutic applications against genetically and functionally diverse viruses families.” [examples he gives are Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae and Herpesviridae, though he could equally have mentioned Coronavidiae as a family of related viruses.] “Many traditional medicinal plants and herbs were reported to have strong antiviral activity. Aqueous and organic extractions have in general proved equally fruitful; thus it is not feasible at present to assert which method of extraction is preferable. In view of the signification number of plant extracts that have yielded positive results it seems reasonable to conclude that there are probably numerous kinds of antiviral agents in these materials.”
Diet Therapy in the U.S. in the Past 200 Years. A Bicentennial Study - M.A. Ohlson - Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Nov. 1976):
“Although diet therapy is a concept of the twentieth century, its foundations were laid by such men as Sanctorius in the sixteenth century, Lavoisier in the eighteenth century, and Beaumont in the nineteenth century, whose detailed notes reflected amazingly accurate observations. With the advent of scientific medicine, research provided the knowledge on which diet therapy was built. Data on food composition, which began to be available around the turn of the century, was important to the therapeutic dietitian, and, at mid-century, formed the basis for the development of the first Exchange Lists (only revised this year). Diets early in the century involved rigid routines, in contrast with the trend today to consider the individual. World War I marked the emergence of the trained dietitian and changes in diet therapy, as knowledge of the biologic sciences and the practice of medium expanded. Research on metabolism led to control of hemoglobin and the red cell anemias, while growing knowledge of the role of pancreatic secretions in metabolism made near-normal lives possible for those with diabetes. The dietitian today finds herself in the position of interpreter of scientific findings, developing meal patterns which not only correct poor food habits but are acceptable to patients. More recently, she has been concerned with problems in modification of fat intake in the interest of possible prevention of cardiovascular disease. Obesity and its prevention remain problems. The practice of diet therapy is subject to vogues, as is science, but the challenge to the dietitian remains: that of serving each patient through the best possible use of her education, skill, and sensitivity.”
Extract from the Hippocratic Oath - written between the 5th and 3rd centuries BCE - Translated by Michael North - National Library of Medicine (2002) [on the importance of diet]:
“I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my greatest ability and judgement, and I will do no harm or injustice to them.”
[The above are a few reading passages that were valuable in the writing of AVD and which may provide additional stimulation and knowledge to some readers. The above are quotes from those articles, plus extracts from the abstracts of those articles and summaries of key points. They are in no way intended as a comprehensive survey of the vast topics of diet, phytotherapy and alternative treatments for viruses.]
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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