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Elderberry is Anti-bacterial, Anti-viral and modulates the Immune System: Anti-Bacterial, Anti-Viral and Immunomodulatory Non-Clinical (In-Vitro) Effects of Elderberry Fruit and flowers (Sambucus Nigra): A Systematic Review - Julia Wermig-Morgan - Doctoral Thesis, Oxford University (Feb. 2020):
“The S. nigra inactivates two distinct envelope viruses and should be tested on Ebola, also an envelope virus, as it is likely that it may inactivate that too. It should also be tested on SARS and other novel coronaviruses such as COVID-19 which are all envelope viruses. Other species of Sambucus appear to have very similar properties including inhibiting coronaviruses. Elderberry seems to have potential as a useful medicine, particularly since there are reasons to believe resistance to it is unlikely to ever develop.”
May Polyphenols Have a Role Against Coronavirus Infection? An Overview of In Vitro Evidence - Giuseppe Annunziata, Marco Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Ciro Santoro, Roberto Ciampaglia, Mariano Stornaiuolo, Gian Carlo Tenore, Alessandro Sanduzzi & Ettore Novellino - Frontiers in Medicine (15 May 2020):
“In this sense, the anti-inflammatory potential of polyphenols, mainly exerted via reduction of the interleukin levels, appears noteworthy, and investigating this effect in the context of a virus-induced inflammatory status is intriguing. Overall, this evidence may support the use of polyphenolic extracts, including GPE, for the formulation of potential nutraceutical supplements aimed to counteract the COVID-19 infection. This potential activity might be considered in addition to the well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols, which may contribute to the general management of respiratory complications of coronavirus infection.”
Anthocyanin Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease: An In-Silico Perspective of Therapeutic Targets against COVID-19 Pandemic - Zeynab Fakhar, Bahar Faramarzi, Severina Pacifico & Shadab Faramarzi - Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics (3 Aug. 2020):
“To treat the patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), currently no effective drug or vaccine is available. This necessity motivated us to explore potential lead compounds based natural products targeting main protease (Mpro) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2. The Mpro enzyme plays a key role in mediating viral replication and transcription and thus being considered as an attractive drug target. Herein, comprehensive computational investigations were performed to identify new lead compounds against main protease enzyme. In this study, the candidate anthocyanin-derived compounds from PubChem database were filtered considering antiviral characteristics of anthocyanins.”
The Effects of Sambucus Nigra Berry on Acute Respiratory Viral infections: A Rapid Review of Clinical Studies - Joanna Harnett, Kerrie Oakes, Jenny Carè, M. Leach, D. Brown, Holger Cramer, Tobey-Ann Pinder, A. Steel & D. Anheyer - Advances in Integrative Medicine (2020):
“Collectively the evidence obtained from across five clinical studies involving 936 adults indicate that mono-herbal preparations of Sambucus nigra L. berry (S.nigra), when taken within 48 hours of the onset of acute respiratory viral infection, may reduce the duration and severity of common cold and influenza symptoms in adults. There is currently no evidence to support the use of S.nigra berry for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19. Given the body of evidence from preclinical studies demonstrating the antiviral effects of S. nigra berry, alongside the results from clinical studies involving influenza viral infections included in this review, pre-clinical research exploring the potential effects of S.nigra berry on COVID-19 are encouraged.”
To learn more about Ingredient #50 (Elderberry) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Inhibition of Several Strains of Influenza Virus In Vitro and Reduction of Symptoms by an Elderberry Extract (Sambucus Nigra L.) during an Outbreak of Influenza - B. Panama, Z. Zakay-Rones, N. Varsano, M. Zlotnik, O. Manor, L. Regev, M. Schlesinger & M. Mumcuoglu - Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Winter 1995):
“No satisfactory medication to cure influenza type A and B is available. Considering the efficacy of the extract in vitro on all strains of influenza virus tested, the clinical results, its low cost, and absence of side-effects, this preparation [Sambucol] could offer a possibility for safe treatment for influenza A and B.”
The Effect of Sambucol, a Black Elderberry-based Natural Product, on the Production of Human Cytokines: I. Inflammatory Cytokines - V. Barak, T. Halperin & I. Kalickman - European Cytokine Network (Apr-Jun. 2001):
“Sambucus nigra L. products - Sambucol - are based on a standardized black elderberry extract. They are natural remedies with antiviral properties, especially against different strains of influenza virus. Sambucol was shown to be effective in vitro against 10 strains of influenza virus. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, Sambucol reduced the duration of flu symptoms to 3-4 days. Convalescent phase serum showed a higher antibody level to influenza virus in the Sambucol group, than in the control group.”
“But while the use of anthocyanins for therapeutic purposes has long been supported by both anecdotal and epidemiological evidence, it is only in recent years that some of the specific, measurable pharmacological properties of isolated anthocyanin pigments have been conclusively verified by rigorously controlled in vitro, in vivo, or clinical research trials.”
Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Elderberry Extract in the Treatment of Influenza A and B Virus Infections - Z. Zakay-Rones, E. Thom, T. Wollan & J. Wadstein - The Journal of International Medical Research (Mar-Apr. 2004):
“We investigated the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry syrup for treating influenza A and B infections. Sixty patients (aged 18-54 years) suffering from influenza-like symptoms for 48 h or less were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study during the influenza season of 1999-2000 in Norway. Patients received 15 ml of elderberry or placebo syrup four times a day for 5 days, and recorded their symptoms using a visual analogue scale. Symptoms were relieved on average 4 days earlier and use of rescue medication was significantly less in those receiving elderberry extract compared with placebo. Elderberry extract seems to offer an efficient, safe and cost-effective treatment for influenza. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study.”
Safety and Whole-Body Antioxidant Potential of a Novel Anthocyanin-rich Formulation of Edible Berries - Debasis Bagchi, Sashwati Roy, Viren Patel, Guanglong He, Savita Khanna, Navdeep Ojha, Christina Phillips, Sumona Ghosh & Manashi Bagchi, Chandan K. Sen - Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry (Jan. 2006).
A Comparative Evaluation of the Anticancer Properties of European and American Elderberry Fruits - Julie M. Thole, Tristan F Burns Kraft, Lilly Ann Sueiro, Young-Hwa Kang, Joell J. Gills, Muriel Cuendet, John M Pezzuto, David S. Seigler & Mary Ann Lila - Journal of Medicinal Food (Winter 2006).
Elderberry Flavonoids Bind to and Prevent H1N1 Infection In Vitro - Bill Roschek Jr., Ryan C. Fink, Matthew D. McMichael, Dan Li & Randall S. Alberte - Phytochemistry (Jul. 2009):
“The H1N1 inhibition activities of the elderberry flavonoids compare favorably to the known anti-influenza activities of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu; 0.32 microM) and Amantadine (27 microM).”
“Several in vitro studies together with two exploratory studies in humans and one open study in chimpanzees indicate that the aqueous elderberry extract Sambucol may be useful for the treatment of viral influenza infections. These promising effects of elderberry fruit preparations from experimental and clinical studies should be backed by more rigorous studies before these preparations are recommended in the prevention of diseases and in treatment schedules.”
Anti-Influenza Virus Effects of Elderberry Juice and its Fractions - Emiko Kinoshita, Kyoko Hayashi, Hiroshi Katayama, Toshimitsu Hayashi & Akio Obata - Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry (2012):
“We evaluated the antiviral effect of concentrated juice of elderberry (CJ-E) on the human influenza A virus (IFV). CJ-E had a relatively strong effect on IFV-infected mice, although its anti-IFV activity was weak in a cell culture system. The in vivo anti-IFV activities of the fractions were determined after separating CJ-E by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange chromatography. Oral administration of the high-molecular-weight fractions of CJ-E to IFV-infected mice suppressed viral replication in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs), and increased the level of the IFV-specific neutralizing antibody in the serum, as well as the level of secretory IgA in BALFs and feces. Fr. II from high-molecular-weight fraction HM, which contained acidic polysaccharides, showed relatively strong defense against IFV infection. We conclude that CJ-E had a beneficial effect by the stimulating immune response and preventing viral infection.”
A Review of Human Health and Disease Claims for Elderberry (Sambucus Nigra) Fruit - B.F. Knudsen & K.V. Kaack - International Symposium on Elderberry (2013):
“In vitro studies have demonstrated a significant antioxidant capacity as determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). Antiviral capacity is also demonstrated by inhibition of viral replication. Furthermore, immune-protective and immune-stimulatory activity was detected. Elderberry also increased production of the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.”
Sambucus Nigra Extracts inhibit Infectious Bronchitis Virus at an Early Point during Replication - Christie Chen, David M. Zuckerman, Susanna Brantley, Michka Sharpe, Kevin Childress, Egbert Hoiczyk & Amanda R Pendleton - BMC Veterinary Research (16 Jan. 2014):
“These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV at an early point in infection, probably by rendering the virus non-infectious. They also suggest that future studies using S. nigra extract to treat or prevent IBV or other coronaviruses are warranted.”
An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Elderberry and Elderflower (Sambucus Nigra) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration - C. Ulbricht, E. Basch, L. Cheung, H. Goldberg, P. Hammerness, Richard Isaac, K. P. Khalsa, A. Romm, Idalia Rychlik, Minney Varghese, W. Weissner, Regina C. Windsor & J. Wortley - Journal of Dietary Supplements (2014).
A Review of the Antiviral Properties of Black Elder (Sambucus Nigra L.) Products - Randall S. Porter & R. Bode - Phytotherapy Research (2017):
“Here, we evaluate the state of current scientific research concerning the use of elderberry extract and related products as antivirals, particularly in the treatment of influenza, as well as their safety and health impacts as dietary supplements. While the extent of black elder's antiviral effects are not well known, antiviral and antimicrobial properties have been demonstrated in these extracts, and the safety of black elder is reflected by the United States Food and Drug Administration approval as generally recognized as safe.”
Health Benefits of Anthocyanins and Molecular Mechanisms: Update from Recent Decade - Daotong Li, Pengpu Wang, Yinghua Luo, Mengyao Zhao & Fang Chen - Critical Review of Food Sciences and Nutrition (24 May 2017):
“This review summarizes the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of anthocyanins and their molecular mechanisms. It appears that several signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor κB, AMP-activated protein kinase, and Wnt/β-catenin, as well as some crucial cellular processes, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, and biochemical metabolism, are involved in these beneficial effects and may provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies for the improvement of a wide range of diseases in future.”
Black Elderberry (Sambucus Nigra) Supplementation Effectively Treats Upper Respiratory Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials - Jessie Hawkins, Colby Baker, Lindsey Cherry & Elizabeth Dunne - Complementary Therapies in Medicine (Feb. 2019):
“Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) has been used to treat cold and flu symptoms, but there are no large-scale studies or meta-analyses. This meta-analysis quantifies the effects of elderberry supplementation and evaluates moderators including vaccination status and the underlying pathology. This analysis included a total of 180 participants and evaluates moderators such as vaccination status and cause of the upper respiratory symptoms. This analysis included a total of 180 participants and evaluates moderators such as vaccination status and cause of the upper respiratory symptoms. Supplementation with elderberry was found to substantially reduce upper respiratory symptoms. The quantitative synthesis of the effects yielded a large mean effect size. These findings present an alternative to antibiotic misuse for upper respiratory symptoms due to viral infections.”
Anti-Influenza Activity of Elderberry (Sambucus Nigra) - Golnoosh Torabian, Peter Valtchev, Qayyum Adil & Fariba Dehghani - Journal of Functional Foods (Mar. 2019).
“Elderberry showed mild inhibitory effect at the early stages of the influenza virus cycle, with considerably stronger effect (therapeutic index of 12 ± 1.3) in the post-infection phase. Our data further support both direct effects of elderberry extract by blocking viral glycoproteins as well as indirect effects by increased expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF. Cyn 3-glu despite demonstrating a similar direct mechanism of action (IC50 of 0.069 mg/ml) compared to the elderberry juice, did not affect the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, elderberry exhibits multiple modes of therapeutic action against influenza infection.”
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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