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In Silico Approach of Some Selected Honey Constituents as SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (COVID-19) Inhibitors - Heba E. Hashem - Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology (5 May 2020):
“The presented study screened in silico the biological activity of six compounds present in honeybee and propolis as antiviral components against the COVID-19 main protease. The study revealed that four compounds have strong binding affinity with good glide score and may inhibit the COVID-19 main protease and virus replication.”
Prospects of Honey in Fighting against COVID-19: Pharmacological Insights and Therapeutic Promises - Khandkar Shaharina Hossain, Md. Golzar Hossain, Akhi Moni & Md. Mahbubur Rahman - Heliyon (21 Dec. 2020):
“Honey can be beneficial for patients with COVID-19 caused by an enveloped virus SARS-CoV-2 through simultaneously boosting the host immune system, improving comorbid conditions and antiviral activities. Moreover, a clinical trial of honey on COVID-19 patients has been undergoing. In this review, we summarized the potential benefits of honey and its ingredients in the context of antimicrobial activities, numerous chronic diseases, and host immune system and thereby tried to establish a relationship with honey for the treatment of COVID-19. ”
Efficacy of Natural Honey Treatment in Patients With Novel Coronavirus - Mahmoud Ahmed Tantawy, Misr University for Science and Technology - ClinicalTrials.gov (Start Date: 15 Apr. 2020 / End Date: 15 Jan. 2021):
“The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Public Health England (PHE) guidelines recommended honey as a first line of treatment for acute cough caused by upper respiratory tract infection which is currently a cornerstone symptom in COVID-19 infectious disease. Moreover, natural honey should no longer be used as "alternative" and deserves to gain more attention by scientists and researchers. The aim of this trial is to study the efficacy of natural honey in treatment of patients infected with COVID-19 in comparison with current standard care.”
To learn more about Ingredient #44 (Manuka Honey) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Honey: its Medicinal Property and Antibacterial Activity - E.S.V. Littlejohn - Thesis, Master of Science (MSc) - The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand (2009):
“A large amount of research has established that honey has potent antibacterial activity. However, the sensitivity to honey of viral species that cause infections has been studied in only a small number of cases. The aim of this study was to obtain data to clarify and extend knowledge obtained from these previous studies of honey's antiviral activity, and especially study those viruses that cause localised infections which have limited or no therapy available, which are suitable to treatment with topically applied honey. [...] It is concluded from the findings in this study that honey is likely to be an effective antiviral treatment for the therapy of localised viral infections, this needs to be verified by clinical trials.”
Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Eight Monofloral Iranian Honey Types - Mandana Behbahani & Rizwan H. Khan [Editor] - PLoS One (21 Oct. 2014):
“These studies suggest that there is a striking correlation between anti-HIV-1 activity of Iranian honeys and floral sources. In the present study, mono-floral honeys originated from P. sativum, N. sativa, C. sinensis, Z. mmultiflora, C. aurantium and Z. mauritiana showed potential anti-HIV-l activity while mono-floral honeys originated from A. gummifer and C. nobile showed lower anti-HIV activity. These results can be attributed to the differences in the secondary compound profile which are dependent largely on the floral source of the honey. [...] In the present study, anti-HIV-1 activity of methylglyoxal was significantly more than eight honey types, giving the conclusion that methylglyoxal is potent constituent in honeys to suppress HIV-1 activity. Our data demonstrated that Iranian honey types with high concentration of methylglyoxal might be good candidates for preclinical evaluation of anti-HIV-1 therapies.”
Honey: its Medicinal Property and Antibacterial Activity - Manisha Deb Mandal & Shyamapada Mandal - Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (Apr. 2011).
In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Honey against Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV): A Translational Medicine Study for Potential Remedy for Shingles - Aamir Shahzad & Randall J. Cohrs - Translational Biomedicine (20 Jul. 2012):
“The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-viral effect of honey on varicella zoster virus. [...] Manuka and clover honeys were used at concentrations ranging from 0-6% wt/vol. A clinical VZV isolate was obtained from a zoster vesicle and used at low passage. Various concentrations of manuka and clover honey were added to the tissue culture medium of VZV-infected human malignant melanoma (MeWo) cells. RESULTS: Both types of honey showed antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus with an approximate EC50 = 4.5 % (wt/vol).”
Antiviral Activities of Honey, Royal Jelly, and Acyclovir Against HSV-1 - M.A. Hashemipour, Z. Tavakolineghad, S.A. Arabzadeh, Z. Iranmanesh & S.A. Nassab - Wounds (Feb. 2014):
“Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) belongs to the Herpesviridae family and genus simplex virus. This virus is usually acquired during childhood and is transmitted through direct mucocutaneous contact or droplet infection from infected secretions. The aim of the present study was to compare antiviral effects of honey, royal jelly, and acyclovir on herpes simplex virus-1 in an extra-somatic environment. [...] The results showed that honey, royal jelly, and acyclovir have the highest inhibitory effects on HSV-1 at concentrations of 500, 250, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, honey, royal jelly, and acyclovir decreased the viral load from 70 795 to 43.3, 30, and 0 PFU/mL at a concentration of 100 μg/mL, respectively.”
Anti-influenza Viral Effects of Honey In Vitro: Potent High Activity of Manuka Honey - Ken Watanabe, Ratika Rahmasari, Ayaka Matsunaga, Takahiro Haruyama & Nobuyuki Kobayashi - Archives of Medical Research (14 Mar. 2014):
“Antiviral activities of honey samples were evaluated using MDCK cells. To elucidate the possible mechanism of action of honey, plaque inhibition assays were used. Synergistic effects of honey with known anti-influenza virus drugs such as zanamivir or oseltamivir were tested. [...] Manuka honey efficiently inhibited influenza virus replication (IC50 = 3.6 ± 1.2 mg/mL; CC50 = 82.3 ± 2.2 mg/mL; selective index = 22.9), which is related to its virucidal effects. In the presence of 3.13 mg/mL manuka honey, the IC50 of zanamivir or oseltamivir was reduced to nearly 1/1000th of their single use. Conclusions: Our results showed that honey, in general, and particularly manuka honey, has potent inhibitory activity against the influenza virus, demonstrating a potential medicinal value.”
Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative - Dee A. Carter, Shona E. Blair, Nural N. Cokcetin, Daniel Bouzo, Peter Brooks, Ralf Schothauer & Elizabeth J. Harry - Frontiers in Microbiology (20 Apr. 2016).
Honey and Health: A Review of Recent Clinical Research - Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh & Fariborz Samini - Pharmacognosy Research (Apr-Jun. 2017):
“Honey has a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of disease by phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Flavonoids and polyphenols, which act as antioxidants, are two main bioactive molecules present in honey. [...] Sufficient evidence exists recommending the use of honey in the management of disease conditions. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended.”
Role of Honey in Modern Medicine - Sultan Ayoub Meo, Saleh Ahmad Al-Asiri, Abdul Latief Mahesar & Mohammad Javed Ansari - Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - July 2017:
“[S]ome specific kinds of honey show broad-spectrum antimicrobial role against antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens (Blair et al., 2009, Cooper et al., 2002a, Cooper et al., 2002b, French et al., 2005). The floral sources are responsible for differences in the type and level of anti-microbial activity (Brady et al., 2004). It is mainly based on the environmental conditions and geographical location of the floral sources (Price and Morgan, 2006). Julie et al. (2011) found that honey has clinical potential and shows a extensive range of antibacterial activity with an accepted possible therapeutic use. The anti-bacterial action was mainly due to hydrogen peroxide formed by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase.”
Antibacterial Potency of Honey - Najla A. Albaridi - International Journal of Microbiology (2 Jun. 2019).
Antibacterial Activity of Varying UMF-Graded Manuka Honeys - Alodia Girma, Wonjae Seo & Rosemary C. She - PLoS One (25 Oct. 2019).
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Click Here to discover research work regarding dietary antivirals that go into an anti-viral diet
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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