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Naturally occurring Anthraquinones as Potential Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease: A Molecular Docking Study - Sourav Das & Atanu Singha Roy - Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Meghalaya (3 May 2020):
“This study provides a lead to the possibility of natural anthraquinones being used as treatment for COVID-19, but as this study has been carried out using blind molecular docking method, detailed in vivo and in vitro experiments are required to be carried out to gauge the applicability and toxicity of these anthraquinones.”
Can Hypericum Perforatum (SJW) prevent Cytokine Storm in COVID‐19 Patients? - Pellegrino Masiello, Michela Novelli, Pascale Beffy & Marta Menegazzi - Phytotherapy Research (5 Jun. 2020):
“In conclusion, we firmly believe that the anti-inflammatory SJW/HPF [St. John's Wort/Hypericum Perforatum] treatment deserves evaluation in COVID‐19 patients. Such a treatment, that offers the additional advantages of being orally administrable, well tolerated, and inexpensive, holds considerable promise to prevent or limit the effects of the cytokine storm through the simultaneous inhibition of NF‐κB, JAK/STAT, and MAPK pathways, that is, the three majors signaling and transduction pathways involved in cytokine‐induced local and systemic inflammatory changes.”
To learn more about Ingredient #41 (St. John's Wort) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Antiviral Effects of Hypericin, a Derivative of St. John's Wort Plant, in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection - Jeffrey M. Jacobson, Lawrence Feinman, Leonard Liebes, Nancy Ostrow, Victoria Koslowski, Alfonso Tobia, Bernard E. Cabana, Dong-Hun Lee, John Spritzler & Alfred M. Prince - Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Feb. 2001) [Results do not show anti-HCV activity at concentrations tested but the researchers do believe the investigation of HPF’s anti-viral potential is valuable.]
Hypericum in Infection: Identification of Anti-Viral and Anti-Inflammatory Constituents - Diane F. Birt, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kimberly D.P. Hammer & Matthew L. Hillwig - Pharmaceutical Biology (Jul. 2009):
“Light-dependent antiviral activities of H. perforatum have been extensively explored by others (Hudson et al., 1991; Jacobson et al., 2001; Laurent et al., 2005; Naesens et al., 2006). This light-dependent, anti-viral activity against various enveloped viruses, but not non-enveloped viruses, has been ascribed to the H. perforatum naphthodianthrones, hypericin and pseudohypericin (Kraus et al., 1990; Lopez-Bazzocchi et al., 1991; Degar et al., 1992; Carpenter et al., 1994; Lavie et al., 1995; Vyas, 1995; Farnet et al., 1998; Park et al., 1998). Hypericin, when exposed to light, displays multiple modes of anti-viral activity, including inhibition of budding of new virions (Meruelo et al., 1988), cross-linking of capsids preventing viral uncoating (Degar et al., 1992), and inhibition of protein kinase activity required for replication of a number of viruses (De Witte et al., 1993; Agostinis et al., 1995). The observation that hypericin specifically inhibits enveloped viruses strongly implicates membrane-associated events as central to the inhibition.”
Medical Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) - Kenneth M. Klemow, Andrew Bartlow, Justin Crawford, Neil Kocher, Jay Shah & Michael Ritsick - from Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects [2nd edition] (28 Mar. 2011).
Therapeutic Efficacy of Hypericum Perforatum L. Extract for Mice Infected with an Influenza A Virus - Pu Xiuying, Liang Jianping, Shang Ruofeng, Zhou Liye, Wang Xuehong, & Li Yan - Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (20 Jan. 2012).
Hypericum Perforatum Extract Therapy for Chickens Experimentally Infected with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and its Influence on Immunity - Ruofeng Shang, Cheng He, Jiongran Chen, Xiuying Pu, Yu Liu, Lanying Hua, Ling Wang & Jianping Liang - Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research (Jul. 2012):
“Chickens infected with IBDV [Infectious Bursal Disease Virus] were treated with HPE for 5 consecutive days, the observation of immune organ indexes and pathological changes index, determination of IFN-α and detection of IBDV with RT-PCR were employed to assess in vivo whether or not HPE had the certain therapeutic efficacy on infectious bursal disease (IBD), and if HPE was able to improve the immunologic function. The results showed that 1330 and 667.9 mg/kg body weight (BW) per day of HPE had significant therapeutic efficacy and improvement immunologic functions for chickens infected experimentally with IBDV.”
Effects of Hypericum Perforatum Extract on IgG titer, Leukocytes Subset and Spleen Index in Rats - Tahereh Aghili, Javad Arshami, Abdol Mansur Tahmasbi & Ali Reza Haghparast - Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine (Nov-Dec. 2014):
“This study was investigated [sic.] the effects of Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) on immunity, body weight (BW), and spleen index (SI) in rats. [...] The results showed that HPE slightly improved IgG titer but significantly increased the number of leukocytes and monocytes at 200 mg, and neutrophils at 400 mg. The HPEdecreased BW at 100 mg and 200 mg with no damage on spleen.”
The Chemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of St. John's Wort Oil Macerates Used in Kosovar Traditional Medicine - James T. Lyles, Austin Kim, Kate Nelson, Angelle L. Bullard-Roberts, Avni Hajdari, Behxhet Mustafa & Cassandra L. Quave - Frontiers in Microbiology (8 Sep. 2017).
Effects of Hypericum Perforatum Extract on the Immunogenic Myocardial Fibrosis in Mice and its Mechanism [Article in Chinese] - Yan-Fei Fu, Le Li, Sheng-Qiang Tong & Ji-Zhong Yan - Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi (Sep. 2019).
Antiviral Activity Against Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Bioactive Components of Hypericum Perforatum L. - Huijie Chen, Ishfaq Muhammad, Yue Zhang, Yudong Ren, Ruili Zhang, Xiaodan Huang, Lei Diao, Haixin Liu, Xunliang Li, Xiaoqi Sun, Ghulam Abbas & Guangxing Li - Frontiers in Pharmacology (29 Oct. 2019):
“Some studies have shown that H. perforatum extract have an antiviral effect on influenza A virus and HIV (Barnes et al., 2001; Birt et al., 2009; Pu et al., 2012), suggesting that HPE have the potential to be developed and used as antiviral drugs. In this study, we found that H. perforatum extract had significantly antiviral effect on IBV in vitro and in vivo, respectively. In addition, anti-IBV effect of HPE might correlate with MDA5 and NF-κB signaling pathway. [...] Our study provides, for the first time, clear evidence that the extract of H. perforatum, containing hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin [qv.] pseudohypericin, and hypericin, possess anti-IBV activities. Furthermore, its anti-IBV effect may be associated with reduced mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α by NF-κB signaling pathway, and related to up-regulate mRNA expression levels of type I interferon through the MDA5 signaling pathway, and could be useful for the development of new antiviral agents. However, further studies are required to elucidate its detail mechanism of action.”
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Click Here to discover the positive news about how an anti-viral diet can help against variants
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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