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Identification of Potent COVID-19 Main Protease (Mpro) Inhibitors from Natural Polyphenols: An In Silico Strategy unveils a Hope against CORONA - Sevki Adem, Volkan Eyupoglu, Iqra Sarfraz, Azhar Rasul & Muhammad Ali - PrePrints (23 Mar. 2020):
“According to moldock binding score, the potent flavonoids can be ranked as following by affinity hesperidin > rutin > diosmin > apiin > diacetylcurcumin. All the compounds bearing good binding potency are components of dietary foods that suggest the biologically safe profile of these compounds further supporting the potential of these compounds as starting points for therapeutics against COVID-19.”
Evaluation of Flavonoids as 2019-nCoV Cell Entry Inhibitor through Molecular Docking and Pharmacological Analysis - Deep Bhowmik, Rajat Nandi & Diwakar Kumar - chemRxiv (2 Apr. 2020):
“Lipinski's rule of five indicated hesperidin and naringin to be a poor drug for an oral route. But, previous experiments suggested that both hesperidin and naringin possess inhibitory activity in vitro against infection with rotavirus where hesperidin showed the maximum inhibition among the flavonoids followed by naringin with IC50 of 10μM and 25μM respectively. The strong antiviral efficacy of these both flavonoids, thus, cannot be neglected and was considered for further pharmacological analysis.”
Review of Evidence Available on Hesperidin-Rich Products as Potential Tools against COVID-19 and Hydrodynamic Cavitation-Based Extraction as a Method of Increasing their Production - Francesco Meneguzzo, Rosaria Ciriminna, Federica Zabini & Mario Pagliaro - Processes (8 May 2020):
“This study reviews the recent evidence about hesperidin as a promising molecule, and proposes a feasible and affordable process based on hydrodynamic cavitation for the integral aqueous extraction of citrus peel waste resulting in hesperidin-rich products, either aqueous extracts or pectin tablets. The uptake of this process on a relevant scale is urged, in order to achieve large-scale production and distribution of hesperidin-rich products. Meanwhile, experimental and clinical studies could determine the effective doses either for therapeutic and preventive purposes.”
Analysis of Therapeutic Targets for SARS-CoV-2 and Discovery of Potential Drugs by Computational Methods - Canrong Wu, Yang Liu, Yueying Yang, Peng Zhang, Wu Zhong, Yali Wang, Qiqi Wang, Yang Xu, Mingxue Li, Xingzhou Li, Mengzhu Zheng, Lixia Chen & Hua Li - Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B (May 2020):
“The natural products, such as flavanoids like neohesperidin, hesperidin, baicalin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and rutin from different sources, andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide from A. paniculata, and a series of xanthones from the plants of Swertia genus, with anti-virus, anti-bacteria and anti-inflammation activity could effectively interact with these targets of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the herbal medicines containing these compounds as major components might be meaningful for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections.”
Is Hesperidin Essential for Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection? - Yusuf A. Haggag, Nahla E. El-Ashmawy & Kamal M. Okashac - Medical Hypotheses (6 Jun. 2020):
“Anti-viral activity of hesperidin might constitute a treatment option for COVID-19 through improving host cellular immunity against infection and its good anti-inflammatory activity may help in controlling cytokine storm. Hesperidin mixture with diosmin co-administrated with heparin protect against venous thromboembolism which may prevent disease progression. Based on that, hesperidin might be used as a meaningful prophylactic agent and a promising adjuvant treatment option against SARS-CoV-2 infection.”
Hesperidin and SARS-CoV-2: New Light on the Healthy Functions of Citrus Fruit - Paolo Bellavite & Alberto Donzelli - PrePrints (28 Jun. 2020):
“Among the latter, hesperidin has recently attracted the attention of researchers, because it binds to the key proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Several computational methods, independently applied by different researchers, showed that hesperidin has a low binding energy both with the coronavirus "spike" protein, and with the main protease that transforms the early proteins of the virus (pp1a and ppa1b) into the complex responsible for viral replication. The affinity of hesperidin for these proteins is comparable if not superior to that of common chemical antivirals.”
To learn more about Ingredient #20 (Hesperidin) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Antiviral Activity of Plant Components. 1st Communication. Flavonoids [Author's Translation] - A. Wacker & H.G. Eilmes - Arzneimittel-Forschung [Drug Research] (1 Jan. 1978).
Antiviral Effect of Flavonoids on Human Viruses - T.N. Kaul, E. Middleton Jr. & P.L. Ogra - Journal of Medical Virology (Jan. 1985).
Glucosyl Hesperidin prevents Influenza A Virus Replication In Vitro by Inhibition of Viral Sialidase - R.K. Saha, T. Takahashi & T. Suzuki - Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Jul. 2009).
A Dual Character of Flavonoids in Influenza A Virus Replication and Spread through modulating Cell-Autonomous Immunity by MAPK Signaling Pathways - Wenjuan Dong, Xiuli Wei, Fayun Zhang, Junfeng Hao, Feng Huang, Chunling Zhang & Wei Liang - Scientific Reports (28 Nov. 2014).
Comparison of α-glucosyl Hesperidin of Citrus Fruits and Epigallocatechin Gallate of Green Tea on the Loss of Rotavirus Infectivity in Cell Culture - Steven M. Lipson, Fatma S. Ozen, Samantha Louis & Laina Karthikeyan - Frontiers in Microbiology (29 Apr. 2015).
Effect of Flavonoids on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Immune Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Vaughan S. Somerville, Andrea J. Braakhuis & Will G. Hopkins - Advances in Nutrition (9 May 2016):
“Previous research on animals indicates flavonoid compounds have immunomodulatory properties; however, human research remains inconclusive. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of dietary flavonoids on upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and immune function in healthy adults. A created search strategy was run against Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and EMBASE classic, CINAHL, and AMED. The returned studies were initially screened, and 2 reviewers independently assessed the remaining studies for eligibility against prespecified criteria. Fourteen studies, of 387 initially identified, were included in this review, and the primary outcome measure was the effect of flavonoids on URTI incidence, duration, and severity.”
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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