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Characterization of Spike Glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on Virus Entry and its Immune Cross-Reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 - Xiuyuan Ou, Yan Liu, Xiaobo Lei, Pei Li, Dan Mi, Lili Ren, Li Guo, Ruixuan Guo, Ting Chen, Jiaxin Hu, Zichun Xiang, Zhixia Mu, Xing Chen, Jieyong Chen, Keping Hu, Qi Jin, Jianwei Wang & Zhaohui Qian - Nature Communications (27 Mar. 2020):
“In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 S protein entry on 293/hACE2 cells is mainly mediated through endocytosis, and that PIKfyve, TPC2, and cathepsin L are critical for virus entry. We further found that SARS-CoV-2 S protein could trigger syncytia in 293/hACE2 cells independent of exogenous protease. Finally, there was limited cross-neutralization activity between convalescent sera from SARS and COVID-19 patients. Our findings provide potential targets for development of drugs and vaccines against this newly emerging lineage B beta-CoV. ”
Could the Inhibition of Endo-Lysosomal Two-Pore Channels (TPCs) by the Natural Flavonoid Naringenin represent an Option to Fight SARS-CoV-2 Infection? - Antonio Filippini, Antonella D'Amore, Fioretta Palombi & Armando Carpaneto - Frontiers in Microbiology (30 Apr. 2020):
“[W]e highlight evidence from different laboratories to drive the attention of the scientific community on the role played by endo-lysosomal Two-Pore Channels (TPCs) in viral infection. In particular, cross linking our recent data and existing literature, we focus on evidence indicating that virus intracellular pathway could be targeted by a novel occurring TPCs inhibitor, the flavonoid Naringenin. A conceptual framework is presented for considering such a strategy as a promising approach to limit the infection mediated by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Our hypothesis offers a perspective on a novel molecular target, TPCs, which could be exploited for a pharmacological blockade of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.”
Bioactive Compounds with Possible Inhibitory Activity of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-II; A Gate to Manage and Prevent COVID-19 - Farid Dabaghian, Mahnaz Khanavi & Mohammad M. Zarshenasb - Medical Hypotheses (16 May 2020):
“Naringin (a flavanone-7-O-glycoside with potential inhibition of COVID-19 binding to ACE-II receptors), Naringenin and Hesperetin (flavanone), Hesperidin (flavanone glycoside), Baicalin and Neohesperidin (flavone glycoside), Nobiletin (O-methylated flavone), Scutellarin (a flavone), Nicotinamine (nonproteinogenic amino acid), Glycyrrhizin (saponin) and Emodin (6-methyl-1,3, 8-trihydroxyanthraquinone) are of most considerable natural ACE-II inhibitors.”
Naringenin, a Flavanone with Antiviral and Anti-Inflammatory Effects: A Promising Treatment Strategy against COVID 19 - Helda Tutunchi, Fatemeh Naeini, Alireza Ostadrahimi & Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh‐Attar - Phytotherapy Research (2 Jul. 2020):
“The evidence reviewed here indicates that naringenin might exert therapeutic effects against COVID‐19 through the inhibition of COVID‐19 main protease, 3‐chymotrypsin‐like protease (3CLpro), and reduction of angiotensin converting enzyme receptors activity. One of the other mechanisms by which naringenin might exert therapeutic effects against COVID‐19 is, at least partly, by attenuating inflammatory responses. The antiviral activity of the flavanone naringenin against some viruses has also been reported. On the whole, the favorable effects of naringenin lead to a conclusion that naringenin may be a promising treatment strategy against COVID 19.”
To learn more about Ingredient #19 (Naringenin) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Antiviral Activity of Plant Components. 1st Communication. Flavonoids [Author's Translation] - A. Wacker & H.G. Eilmes - Arzneimittel-Forschung [Drug Research] (1 Jan 1978).
Inhibition of Virus Multiplication and Alteration of Cyclic AMP Level in Cell Cultures by Flavonoids - I. Mucsi & B. M. Prágai - Experientia [Experiments] (Jul. 1985).
Antiviral Effect of Flavonoids on Human Viruses - T.N. Kaul, E. Middleton Jr & P.L. Ogra - Journal of Medical Virology (Jan. 1985).
Antiviral Activity of Some Flavonoids on Herpes Simplex Viruses - Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Young-So; Lee, Chong-Kil; Lee, Hyuk-Koo & Han, Seong-Sun - Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy (Mar. 1999). [Naringenin shows most potency in this study.]
In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Fisetin, Rutin and Naringenin against Dengue Virus Type-2 - Keivan Zandi, Boon-Teong Teoh, Sing-Sin Sam, Pooi-Fong Wong, Mohd Rais Mustafa & Sazaly Abu-Bakar - Journal of Medicinal Plants Research (23 Oct. 2011).
Flavonoid-associated Direct Loss of Rotavirus Antigen/Antigen Activity in Cell-free Suspension - Steven M. Lipson - Journal of Medicinally Active Plants (Jan. 2013) [Includes study of closely related flavonoid Naringin].
Effect of Flavonoids on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Immune Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Vaughan S. Somerville, Andrea J. Braakhuis, Will G. Hopkins - Advances in Nutrition (9 May 2016).
Comparison between In Vitro Antiviral Effect of Mexican Propolis and Three Commercial Flavonoids against Canine Distemper Virus - María de Jesús González-Búrquez, Francisco Rodolfo González-Díaz, Carlos Gerardo García-Tovar, Liborio Carrillo-Miranda, Carlos Ignacio Soto-Zárate, María Margarita Canales-Martínez, José Guillermo Penieres-Carrillo, Tonatiuh Alejandro Crúz-Sánchez & Salvador Fonseca-Coronado - Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2018).
The Therapeutic Potential of Naringenin: A Review of Clinical Trials - Bahare Salehi, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Paolo Zucca, Raffaele Pezzani, Natália Martins & Javad Sharifi-Rad - Pharmaceuticals [Basel, Switzerland] (8 Nov. 2019):
“[T]he currently available data are very promising, but further research on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects is encouraged to improve both available production and delivery methods and to achieve feasible naringenin-based clinical formulations.”
The Citrus Flavonoid Naringenin impairs the In Vitro Infection of Human Cells by Zika Virus - Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Diogo Kuczera, Andrea Cristine Koishi, Camila Zanluca, Guilherme Ferreira Silveira, Thais Bonato de Arruda, Andréia Akemi Suzukawa, Leandro Oliveira Bortot, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Waldiceu Aparecido Verri Jr., Anny Waloski Robert, Marco Augusto Stimamiglio, Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk & Juliano Bordignon - Scientific Reports (8 Nov. 2019).
The Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Flavonoids Naringenin and Hesperetin against Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Spectroscopic, Atomic Force Microscopy and Molecular Modeling Studies - Xingang Lv, Qilei Wang, Lang-Hong Wang, Er-Fang Ren & Deming Gong - Journal of Molecular Liquids (1 Jun. 2020).
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
Click Here to discover some of the scientists & science behind the theory of an anti-viral diet
Click Here to discover research work regarding dietary antivirals that go into an anti-viral diet
Click Here to learn how dietary ingredients are able to deter the virus that causes COVID-19
Click Here to learn more about increasing your immunity through nutritional status & vaccines
Click Here to discover the positive news about how an anti-viral diet can help against variants
Click Here to inform yourself about the World Health Organization's advice on diet & disease
Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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