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COVID-19: The Inflammation Link and the Role of Nutrition in Potential Mitigation - Ioannis Zabetakis, Ronan Lordan, Catherine Norton & Alexandros Tsoupras - nutrients (19 May 2020):
“In this review, we discuss some of the anti-inflammatory therapies that are currently under investigation intended to dampen the cytokine storm of severe COVID-19 infections. Furthermore, nutritional status and the role of diet and lifestyle is considered, as it is known to affect patient outcomes in other severe infections and may play a role in COVID-19 infection. This review speculates the importance of nutrition as a mitigation strategy to support immune function amid the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying food groups and key nutrients of importance that may affect the outcomes of respiratory infections.”
The Potential Beneficial Effect of EPA and DHA Supplementation Managing Cytokine Storm in Coronavirus Disease - Zoltán Szabó, Tamás Marosvölgyi, Éva Szabó, Péter Bai, Mária Figler & Zsófia Verzár - Frontiers in Physiology (19 Jun. 2020):
“EPA and DHA supplementation can alter many biological pathways which may have direct influence in the outcome of COVID-19. The safety of EPA and DHA supplementation should be also highlighted. Although, the US Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) concluded that a daily intake of EPA+DHA of up to 3.0 g/d is safe.”
Potential Benefits and Risks of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation to Patients with COVID-19 - Marcelo M. Rogero, Matheus de C. Leão, Tamires M. Santana, Mariana V. de M.B. Pimentel, Giovanna C.G. Carlini, Tayse F.F. da Silveira, Renata C. Gonçalves & Inar A. Castro - Free Radicals in Biological Medicine (10 Jul. 2020):
“Dietary supplements could possibly improve the patient's recovery. Omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), present an anti-inflammatory effect that could ameliorate some patients need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. EPA and DHA replace arachidonic acid (ARA) in the phospholipid membranes. When oxidized by enzymes, EPA and DHA contribute to the synthesis of less inflammatory eicosanoids and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as resolvins, maresins and protectins. This reduces inflammation.”
Immune-Boosting Role of Vitamins D, C, E, Zinc, Selenium and Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Could They Help Against COVID-19? - Hira Shakoor, Jack Feehan, Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri, Habiba I. Ali, Carine Platat, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Vasso Apostolopoulos & Lily Stojanovska - Maturitas (Jan. 2021):
“Undoubtedly, nutrition is a key determinant of maintaining good health. Key dietary components such as vitamins C, D, E, zinc, selenium and the omega 3 fatty acids have well-established immunomodulatory effects, with benefits in infectious disease. Some of these nutrients have also been shown to have a potential role in the management of COVID-19. In this paper, evidence surrounding the role of these dietary components in immunity as well as their specific effect in COVID-19 patients are discussed. In addition, how supplementation of these nutrients may be used as therapeutic modalities potentially to decrease the morbidity and mortality rates of patients with COVID-19 is discussed. [...] To support immune function during COVID-19 disease higher dietary intakes of vitamins D, C and E, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids could be beneficial.”
To learn more about Ingredient #13 (Omega-3) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and their Lipid Mediators: Towards an Understanding of Resolvin and Protectin Formation - K.H. Weylandt, C.Y. Chiu, B. Gomolka, S.F. Waechter, B. Wiedenmann - Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators (3 Feb. 2012).
Omega-3 Fatty Acid-derived Resolvins and Protectins in Inflammation Resolution and Leukocyte Functions: Targeting Novel Lipid Mediator Pathways in Mitigation of Acute Kidney Injury - Song Hong & Yan Lu - Frontiers in Immunology (30 Jan. 2013).
The Lipid Mediator Protectin D1 Inhibits Influenza Virus Replication and Improves Severe Influenza - Masayuki Morita, Keiji Kuba, Akihiko Ichikawa, Josef M. Penninger, Makoto Arita & Yumiko Imai - Cell (28 Mar. 2013):
“Influenza A viruses are a major cause of mortality. Given the potential for future lethal pandemics, effective drugs are needed for the treatment of severe influenza such as that caused by H5N1 viruses. Using mediator lipidomics and bio-active lipid screen, we report that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived lipid mediator protectin D1 (PD1) markedly attenuated influenza virus replication via RNA export machinery. Production of PD1 was suppressed during severe influenza and PD1 levels inversely correlated with the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses. Suppression of PD1 was genetically mapped to 12/15-lipoxygenase activity. Importantly, PD1 treatment improved the survival and pathology of severe influenza in mice, even under conditions where known anti-viral drugs fail to protect from death. These results identify the endogenous lipid mediator PD1 as an innate suppressor of influenza virus replication that protects against lethal influenza virus infection.”
n-3 Fatty Acids, Inflammation and Immunity: New Mechanisms to explain Old Actions - Philip C. Calder - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (Aug. 2013).
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Regulatory T Cells in Hematologic Neoplasms - Dayanne da Silva Borges Betiati, Paula Fernanda de Oliveira, Carolina de Quadros Camargo, Everson Araújo Nunes & Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes Trindade - Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia [Brazil Review of Hematology and Hemotherapy] (2013).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Stress-Induced Immune Dysregulation: Implications for Wound Healing - Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, Ronald Glaser & Lisa M. Christian - Military Medicine (Nov. 2014).
Modulation of Host Defence against Bacterial and Viral Infections by Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - M.O. Husson, D. Ley, C. Portal, M. Gottrand, T. Hueso, J.L. Desseyn & F. Gottrand - The Journal of Infection (14 Oct. 2016).
Effectiveness of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Microbial Pathogens - Warren Chanda, Thomson P. Joseph, Xue-fang Guo, Wen-dong Wang, Min Liu, Miza S. Vuai, Arshad A. Padhiar & Min-tao Zhong - Journal of Zhejiang University. Science B. (Apr. 2018).
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Immune Cells - Saray Gutiérrez, Sara L. Svahn & Maria E. Johansson - International Journal of Molecular Science (11 Oct. 2019).
The Resolution of Inflammation through Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Atherosclerosis, Intimal Hyperplasia, and Vascular Calcification - Miguel Carracedo, Gonzalo Artiach, Hildur Arnardottir & Magnus Bäck - Seminars in Immunopathology (6 Nov. 2019).
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
Click Here to discover some of the scientists & science behind the theory of an anti-viral diet
Click Here to discover research work regarding dietary antivirals that go into an anti-viral diet
Click Here to learn how dietary ingredients are able to deter the virus that causes COVID-19
Click Here to learn more about increasing your immunity through nutritional status & vaccines
Click Here to discover the positive news about how an anti-viral diet can help against variants
Click Here to inform yourself about the World Health Organization's advice on diet & disease
Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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