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Potential Interventions for Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systematic Review - Lei Zhang & Yunhui Liu - Journal of Medical Virology (13 Feb. 2020):
“Dietary selenium deficiency that causes oxidative stress in the host can alter a viral genome so that a normally benign or mildly pathogenic virus can become highly virulent in the deficient host under oxidative stress. Deficiency in selenium also induces not only impairment of host immune system, but also rapid mutation of benign variants of RNA viruses to virulence. Beck et al had reported that selenium deficiency could not only increase the pathology of an influenza virus infection but also drive changes in genome of coxsackievirus, permitting an avirulent virus to acquire virulence due to genetic mutation.”
Preventing and Protecting Against COVID-19 – Is Selenium the Answer? - Theodore Zava - The ZRT Laboratory Blog (25 Feb. 2020):
“Studies using mice have shown that viral symptoms and infection times are more severe when dietary selenium is deficient, and that low selenium intake results in decreased GPx activity. While selenium may not be the only nutrient that slows or prevents viral damage and mutation, adequate selenium nutrition should be considered as a defense against viral infectious diseases.”
Association between Regional Selenium Status and Reported Outcome of COVID-19 Cases in China - Jinsong Zhang, Ethan Will Taylor, Kate Bennett, Ramy Saad & Margaret P. Rayman - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (8 Apr. 2020):
“Our results show an association between the reported cure rates for COVID-19 and selenium status. These data are consistent with the evidence of the antiviral effects of selenium from previous studies. Indeed, multiple cellular and viral mechanisms involving selenium and selenoproteins could influence viral pathogenicity, including virally encoded selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases. Such viral mechanisms could contribute to the well-documented oxidative stress associated with many RNA virus infections; increased viral replication (hence increased mutation rate); and observed higher pathogenicity or mortality under selenium defi-ciency, as reported here for SARS-CoV-2.”
Selenium Supplementation in the Prevention of Coronavirus Infections (COVID-19) - Marek Kieliszek & Boguslaw Lipinski - Medical Hypotheses (24 May 2020):
“In view of the facts mentioned above it seems logical to assume that sodium selenite could represent a potential agent for the prevention of viral infections including coronavirus, according to the mechanism suggested for the Ebola virus. In the paper presented by Jayawardena, the authors stated that selenium supplementation inhibited the development of polio and influenza virus. Which also agrees with our hypothesis that selenium strengthens the immune system. This element increases the proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells.”
Enhancing Immunity in Viral Infections, with Special Emphasis on COVID-19: A Review - Ranil Jayawardena, Piumika Sooriyaarachchi, Michail Chourdakis, Chandima Jeewandara & Priyanga Ranasinghe - Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome (Jul-Aug. 2020):
“Low selenium status has been associated with an increased risk of mortality, poor immune function, and cognitive decline, while a higher selenium concentration or selenium supplementation has shown antiviral effects. This has been demonstrated in a study by Broome et al., who evaluated whether an increase in selenium intake (50–100 μg/day) improves immune function in adults with marginal selenium concentration.”
Selenium and Viral Infection: Are there Lessons for COVID-19? - G. Bermano, C. Méplan, D.K. Mercer & J.E. Hesketh - British Journal of Nutrition (6 Aug. 2020):
“In this review, we address the question whether Se intake is a factor in determining the severity of response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). [...] [W]e conclude that Se status is likely to influence human response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and that Se status is one (of several) risk factors which may impact on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in populations where Se intake is sub-optimal or low. We suggest the use of appropriate markers to assess the Se status of COVID-19 patients and possible supplementation may be beneficial in limiting the severity of symptoms, especially in countries where Se status is regarded as sub-optimal.”
Immune-Boosting Role of Vitamins D, C, E, Zinc, Selenium and Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Could They Help Against COVID-19? - Hira Shakoor, Jack Feehan, Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri, Habiba I. Ali, Carine Platat, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Vasso Apostolopoulos & Lily Stojanovska - Maturitas (Jan. 2021):
“To support immune function during COVID-19 disease higher dietary intakes of vitamins D, C and E, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids could be beneficial. It is worth noting however, that much of the evidence surrounding the use of these nutrients in COVID-19 patients, utilize doses too high to come solely from diet. Supplementation with higher doses of these nutrients during COVID-19 infection, have shown positive outcomes, and given their low risk profile are a sensible addition to patient care.”
To learn more about Ingredient #10 (Selenium) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
β-Carotene and Selenium Supplementation enhances Immune Response in Aged Humans - Steven M. Wood, Carla Beckham, Ayako Yosioka, Hamid Darban & Ronald R. Watson - Integrative Medicine (Spring 2000).
Selenium as an Antiviral Agent - Melinda A. Beck - Selenium (2001):
“Recent work with selenium has demonstrated that a deficiency in this trace mineral will lead to increased viral pathogenesis. Selenium-deficient animals infected with a viral pathogen demonstrate immune dysfunction, including altered chemokine and cytokine expression patterns. A benign coxsackievirus infection of selenium-deficient mice leads to the development of myocarditis and further experiments demonstrated that the change in virulence was due to point mutations in the viral genome. Thus, replication in a selenium- deficient host led to a normally benign virus acquiring virulence due to viral mutations. A deficiency in selenium is also associated with disease progression in HIV-infected individuals and with hepatitis C virus-induced liver cancers. It appears that adequate levels of selenium help to protect the host against viral infection.”
Selenium in the Immune System - John R. Arthur, Roderick C. McKenzie & Geoffrey J. Beckett - The Journal of Nutrition (May 2003):
“Adequate dietary selenium is essential for the activity of virtually all arms of the immune system. It is particularly significant that supplemental selenium can improve immune function in British individuals who consume diets that are considered adequate by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria but do not meet the British Recommended Daily Intake.”
Modulatory Effects of Selenium and Zinc on the Immune System - M. Ferenčík & L. Ebringer - Folia Microbiologica (May 2003).
Selenium and Vitamin E Status: Impact on Viral Pathogenicity - M.A. Beck - Journal of Nutrition (May 2007).
Selenium, Immune Function and Resistance to Viral Infections - Harsharn Gill & Glen Walker - Nutrition & Dietetics (5 Jun. 2008):
“Selenium deficiency has also been associated with increased incidence, severity (virulence) and/or progression of viral infections such as influenza, HIV and Coxsackie virus. For example, infections with influenza are known to cause significantly greater lung pathology in Se‐deficient mice compared with Se‐adequate mice; number of inflammatory cells and the pathology score were significantly higher in Se‐deficient mice compared with Se‐adequate mice.50 Se‐deficient mice were also found to develop a Th‐2 type response following influenza infection, whereas the Se‐adequate mice displayed a Th‐1 type response.”
Selenium, Selenoproteins, and Immunity - Joseph C. Avery & Peter R. Hoffmann - nutrients (1 Sep. 2018).
The Influence of Selenium on Immune Responses - Peter R. Hoffmann & Marla J. Berry - Molecular Nutrition and Food Research (Nov. 2008):
“Selenium (Se) is a potent nutritional antioxidant that carries out biological effects through its incorporation into selenoproteins. Given the crucial roles that selenoproteins play in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox status in nearly all tissues, it is not surprising that dietary Se strongly influences inflammation and immune responses. The notion that Se "boosts" the immune system has been supported by studies involving aging immunity or protection against certain pathogens.”
Dietary Selenium in Adjuvant Therapy of Viral and Bacterial Infections - Holger Steinbrenner, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Mohamed A. Dkhil, Frank Wunderlich & Helmut Sies - Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal (7 Jan. 2015):
“The habitual diet is often not sufficient to meet the increased demands for micronutrients in infectious diseases. Dietary multimicronutrient supplements containing selenium up to 200 μg/d have potential as safe, inexpensive, and widely available adjuvant therapy in viral infections (e.g., HIV, IAV) as well as in coinfections by HIV and M. tuberculosis to support the chemotherapy and/or to improve fitness and quality of life of the patients (Table 1). Because many of these patients experience broad nutritional deficiencies, multimicronutrient supplementation appears to be a more promising approach than the use of selenium alone. Dietary supplementation with selenium-containing multimicronutrients might also be useful to improve supportive care and to strengthen the immune system of patients suffering from newly emerging viral diseases, such as in the current epidemic of Ebola fever in West Africa.”
Dietary Selenium Supplementation enhances Antiviral Immunity in Chickens challenged with Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 - B. Shojadoost, R.R. Kulkarni, A. Yitbarek, A. Laursen, K. Taha-Abdelaziz, T. Negash Alkie, N. Barjesteh, W.M. Quinteiro-Filho, T.K. Smith & S. Sharif - Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (13 Dec. 2018).
Selenium, Selenoproteins and Viral Infection - Olivia M. Guillin, Caroline Vindry, Théophile Ohlmann & Laurent Chavatte - nutrients (4 Sep. 2019).
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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