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Potential Interventions for Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systematic Review - Lei Zhang & Yunhui Liu - Journal of Medical Virology (13 Feb. 2020):
“Increasing the concentration of intracellular zinc with zinc‐ionophores like pyrithione can efficiently impair the replication of a variety of RNA viruses. In addition, the combination of zinc and pyrithione at low concentrations inhibits the replication of SARS coronavirus (SARS‐CoV). Therefore, zinc supplement may have effect not only on COVID 19‐related symptom like diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infection, but also on COVID‐19 itself.”
Rapid Response: Zinc Supplementation and Containment of Covid-19 Virus Pandemic - Vinay K. Dave & Chloe A. Hylton - The British Medical Journal (5 Mar. 2020):
“Patients immune-compromised for whatever reason, should receive zinc supplements. Since zinc boosts the overall immune response, all patients infected with the Covid-19 virus would derive some benefit from zinc supplementation, especially those with latent zinc deficiency. Antiviral activity for zinc has been shown in coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV, MERS and EAV viruses.”
Zinc and Respiratory Tract Infections: Perspectives for COVID 19 (Review) - Anatoly V. Skalny, Lothar Rink, Olga P. Ajsuvakov, Michael Aschner, Viktor A. Gritsenko, Svetlana I. Alekseenko, Andrey A. Svistunov, Demetrios Petrakis, Demetrios A. Spandidos, Jan Aaseth, Aristidis Tsatsakis & Alexey A. Tinkov - International Journal of Molecular Medicine (13 Apr. 2020):
“Therefore, Zn may possess protective effect as preventive and adjuvant therapy of COVID 19 through reducing inflammation, improvement of mucociliary clearance, prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury, modulation of antiviral and anti- bacterial immunity.”
Potential Role of Zinc Supplementation in Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19 - Amit Kumar, Yuichi Kubota, Mikhail Chernov & Hidetoshi Kasuya - Medical Hypotheses (25 May 2020):
“Effectiveness of Zn against a number of viral species is mainly realized through the physical processes, such as virus attachment, infection, and uncoating. Zn may also protect or stabilize the cell membrane which could contribute to blocking of the virus entry into the cell. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that Zn may inhibit viral replication by alteration of the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in rhinoviruses, HCV, and influenza virus, and diminish the RNA-synthesizing activity of nidoviruses, for which SARS-CoV-2 belongs. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that Zn supplementation may be of potential benefit for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.”
Can Zn Be a Critical Element in COVID-19 Treatment? - Mohammad Tariqur Rahman & Syed Zahir Idid - Biological Trace Element Research (26 May 2020):
“Zn supplement can favour COVID-19 treatment using those suggested and/or recommended drugs. Again, the effectiveness of Zn can be enhanced by using chloroquine as an ionophore while Zn inside the infected cell can stop SARS-CoV-2 replication. Given those benefits, this perspective paper describes how and why Zn could be given due consideration as a complement to the prescribed treatment of COVID-19.”
COVID-19 Pandemic: Can Maintaining Optimal Zinc Balance Enhance Host Resistance? - Mohammed S. Razzaque - The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (July 2020):
“The National and International health agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the WHO have provided clear guidelines for both preventive and treatment suggestions. In this article, I will briefly discuss, why keeping adequate zinc balance might enhance the host response and be protective of viral infections.”
The Potential Impact of Zinc Supplementation on COVID-19 Pathogenesis - Inga Wessels, Benjamin Rolles & Lothar Rink - Frontiers in Immunology (10 Jul. 2020):
“As zinc is essential to preserve natural tissue barriers such as the respiratory epithelium, preventing pathogen entry, for a balanced function of the immune system and the redox system, zinc deficiency can probably be added to the factors predisposing individuals to infection and detrimental progression of COVID-19. Finally, due to its direct antiviral properties, it can be assumed that zinc administration is beneficial for most of the population, especially those with suboptimal zinc status.”
Enhancing Immunity in Viral Infections, with Special Emphasis on COVID-19: A Review - Ranil Jayawardena, Piumika Sooriyaarachchi, Michail Chourdakis, Chandima Jeewandara & Priyanga Ranasinghe - Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome (Jul-Aug. 2020):
“Zinc is an essential trace element which plays an important role in growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. Zinc deficiency has been associated with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, including viral infections. Studies have shown that the zinc status of an individual is a critical factor that can influence immunity against viral infections, with zinc-deficient populations being at increased risk of acquiring infections, such as HIV or HCV. ”
Immunomodulatory Effects of Zinc as a Supportive Strategy for COVID-19 - Nahla A. Tayyib, Pushpamala Ramaiah, Fatmah J. Alsolami & Mohammed S. Alshmemri - Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (1 Aug. 2020):
“Interestingly, low-level zinc results in dysfunction of all immune cells, subjects with altered zinc state have a high risk for infectious disorders, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Several assumptions regarding immunomodulators of zinc remain unresolved. This review aimed to explore the hypothetical association of Zinc supplementation (the key immunomodulator) in association with a preventive and therapeutic role of treating patients with COVID-19.”
Immune-Boosting Role of Vitamins D, C, E, Zinc, Selenium and Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Could They Help Against COVID-19? - Hira Shakoor, Jack Feehan, Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri, Habiba I. Ali, Carine Platat, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Vasso Apostolopoulos & Lily Stojanovska - Maturitas (Jan. 2021):
“To support immune function during COVID-19 disease higher dietary intakes of vitamins D, C and E, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids could be beneficial. It is worth noting however, that much of the evidence surrounding the use of these nutrients in COVID-19 patients, utilize doses too high to come solely from diet. Supplementation with higher doses of these nutrients during COVID-19 infection, have shown positive outcomes, and given their low risk profile are a sensible addition to patient care.”
To learn more about Ingredient #6 (Zinc) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Modulatory Effects of Selenium and Zinc on the Immune System - M. Ferenčík & L. Ebringer - Folia Microbiologica (May 2003).
Effect of Zinc Salts on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication - Rahaman O. Suara & James E. Crowe Jr. - Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Mar. 2004):
“The inhibitory effect of zinc salts on RSV was concentration dependent and was not observed with other salts containing divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and manganese. RSV plaque formation was prevented by pretreatment of HEp-2 cell monolayer cultures with zinc or by addition of zinc to methylcellulose overlay media after infection. The results of this study suggest that zinc mediates anti-viral activity on RSV by altering the ability of the cell to support RSV replication.”
Efficacy of Zinc against Common Cold Viruses: An Overview - D. Hulisz - Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Oct. 2004):
“Clinical trial data support the value of zinc in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms of the common cold when administered within 24 hours of the onset of common cold symptoms. Additional clinical and laboratory evaluations are warranted to further define the role of ionic zinc for the prevention and treatment of the common cold and to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms through which zinc exerts its symptom-relieving effects.”
Zinc in Human Health: Effect of Zinc on Immune Cells - Ananda S. Prasad - Molecular Medicine (3 Apr. 2008).
The Role of Copper and Zinc Toxicity in Innate Immune Defense against Bacterial Pathogens - Karrera Y. Djoko, Cheryl-lynn Y. Ong, Mark J. Walker & Alastair G. McEwan - The Journal of Biological Chemistry (31 Jul. 2015).
Zinc: A Potential Antiviral Against Hepatitis E Virus Infection? - Nidhi Kaushik, Saumya Anang, Krishna Priya Ganti & Milan Surjit - DNA and Cell Biology (1 Jul 2018).
The Role of Zinc in Antiviral Immunity - Scott A. Read, Stephanie Obeid, Chantelle Ahlenstiel & Golo Ahlenstiel - Advances in Nutrition (22 Apr. 2019):
“Zinc deficiency is strikingly common, affecting up to a quarter of the population in developing countries, but also affecting distinct populations in the developed world as a result of lifestyle, age, and disease-mediated factors. Consequently, zinc status is a critical factor that can influence antiviral immunity, particularly as zinc-deficient populations are often most at risk of acquiring viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C virus.”
Inhibition of H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Another Emerging Application of Nano-medicine - Hadi Ghaffari, Ahmad Tavakoli, Abdolvahab Moradi, Alijan Tabarraei, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Masoumeh Zahmatkeshan, Mohammad Farahmand, Davod Javanmard, Seyed Jalal Kiani, Maryam Esghaei, Vahid Pirhajati-Mahabadi, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari & Angila Ataei-Pirkooh - Journal of Biomedical Science (10 Sep. 2019).
Zinc Chelation Specifically Inhibits Early Stages of Dengue Virus Replication by Activation of NF-κB and Induction of Antiviral Response in Epithelial Cells - Meenakshi Kar, Naseem Ahmed Khan, Aleksha Panwar, Sachendra S. Bais, Soumen Basak, Renu Goel, Shailaja Sopory & Guruprasad R. Medigeshi - Frontiers in Immunology (1 Oct. 2019).
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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