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Potential Interventions for Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systematic Review - Lei Zhang & Yunhui Liu - Journal of Medical Virology (13 Feb. 2020):
“In addition, people who are housebound, or institutionalized and those who work at night may have vitamin D deficiency, as do many elderly people, who have limited exposure to sunlight. The COVID‐19 was first identified in Winter of 2019 and mostly affected middle‐aged to elderly people. The virus infected people might have insufficient vitamin D. In addition, the decreased vitamin D status in calves had been reported to cause the infection of bovine coronavirus. Therefore, vitamin D could work as another therapeutic option for the treatment of this novel virus.”
Does Vitamin D Status impact Mortality from SARS-CoV-2 Infection? - Paul E. Marik, Pierre Kory & Joseph Varonc - Medicine in Drug Discovery (29 Apr. 2020):
“Our data are supported by the paper by Rhodes et al. They tabulated the mortality for COVID-19 around the world and demonstrated that the mortality was relatively low for countries below 35o latitude. Similarly, Daneshkhah and coworkers demonstrated that the age-specific case fatality rate of COVID-19 was highest in Italy, Spain, and France, European countries with the highest incidence severe vitamin D deficiency. Our findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may partly explain the geographic variations in the reported case fatality rate of COVID-19, implying that supplementation with vitamin D may reduce the mortality from this pandemic.”
The Role of Vitamin D in the Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection and Mortality - Petre Cristian Ilie, Simina Stefanescu & Lee Smith - Ageing Clinical and Experimental Research (6 May 2020):
"In conclusion, we found significant crude relationships between vitamin D levels and the number COVID-19 cases and especially the mortality caused by this infection. The most vulnerable group of population for COVID-19, the aging population, is also the one that has the most deficit Vitamin D levels. Vitamin D has already been shown to protect against acute respiratory infections and it was shown to be safe. It should be advisable to perform dedicated studies about vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with different degrees of disease severity."
Tripartite Combination of Potential Pandemic Mitigation Agents: Vitamin D, Quercetin, and Estradiol manifest Properties of Candidate Medicinal Agents for Mitigation of the Severity of Pandemic COVID-19 defined by Genomics-guided Tracing of SARS-CoV-2 Targets in Human Cells - Gennadi Glinsky - ChemRxiv (13 May 2020):
“Observations reported in this contribution are intended to facilitate follow-up targeted experimental studies and, if warranted, randomized clinical trials to identify and validate therapeutically-viable interventions to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, gene expression profiles of Vitamin D and Quercetin activities and their established safety records as over-the-counter medicinal substances strongly argue that they may represent viable candidates for further considerations of their potential utility as COVID-19 pandemic mitigation agents.”
Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Virus/COVID-19 Disease - Susan A. Lanham-New, Ann R. Webb, Kevin D. Cashman, Judy L. Buttriss, Joanne L. Fallowfield, Tash Masud, Martin Hewison, John C. Mathers, Mairead Kiely, Ailsa A. Welch, Kate A. Ward, Pamela Magee, Andrea L. Darling, Tom R. Hill, Carolyn Greig, Colin P. Smith, Richard Murphy, Sarah Leyland, Roger Bouillon, Sumantra Ray & Martin Kohlmeier - BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health (May 13, 2020):
“This short original report aims to provide a balanced scientific view on vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 virus/COVID-19 disease. It provides a succinct summary of the current scientific evidence of associations between vitamin D, influenza, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and immune health. Importantly, the paper concludes with lifestyle strategies for avoiding vitamin D deficiency and ensuring a healthy balanced diet at any time, including during the current pandemic.”
Vitamin D Supplementation: A Potential Approach for Coronavirus/COVID-19 Therapeutics? - John F. Arboleda & Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima - Frontiers in Immunology (23 Jun. 2020):
“In summary, we postulate that conventional oral vitamin D supplementation can be a readily strategy to aim: (i) restriction of SARS-CoV-2 infection via downregulation of ACE2 receptor, and (ii) attenuation of disease severity by down-tuning the pulmonary pro-inflammatory response or cytokine storm that fuels COVID-19 severity. Therefore, verifying its beneficial role by means of epidemiologic, clinical and experimental in vivo and in vitro evidence may turn Vitamin D into a new “at hand tool” to protect vulnerable populations and mitigate the impact of the current pandemic events.”
Does Vitamin D Deficiency increase the Severity of COVID-19? - E. Kenneth Weir, Thenappan Thenappan, Maneesh Bhargava & Yingjie Chen - Clinical Medicine Journal (Jul. 2020):
“If vitamin D has beneficial effects against COVID-19, it would follow that the severity of the disease should lessen in the Northern hemisphere as exposure to increasing sunlight on the skin in springtime increases endogenous production of vitamin D through the photolysis of 7-dehydrocholesterol. Our opinion is that if vitamin D does in fact reduce the severity of COVID-19 with regard to pneumonia/ARDS, inflammation, inflammatory cytokines, and thrombosis, then supplements would offer a relatively easy option to decrease the impact of the pandemic.”
Enhancing Immunity in Viral Infections, with Special Emphasis on COVID-19: A Review - Ranil Jayawardena, Piumika Sooriyaarachchi, Michail Chourdakis, Chandima Jeewandara & Priyanga Ranasinghe - Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome (Jul-Aug. 2020):
“It is evident that the role of vitamin D supplementation on antiviral immunity against respiratory infections is likely to depend on the vitamin D status of the individual. Furthermore, vitamin D has demonstrated a beneficial effect in other viral infections, for example adding vitamin D to conventional Peg-α-2b/ribavirin therapy for treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection significantly improved the viral response, and a similar effect has also been observed in patients with HCV genotype 2–3.”
Vitamin D for COVID-19: A Case to Answer? - Adrian R. Martineau & Nita G. Forouhi - The Lancet [Diabetes and Endocrinology] (3 Aug. 2020):
“Vitamin D has also been shown to regulate immunopathological inflammatory responses in the context of other respiratory infections. The finding that these effects were mediated via regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in an animal model has particular relevance in the context of severe COVID-19, where overactivation of RAS associates with poor prognosis.”
Immune-Boosting Role of Vitamins D, C, E, Zinc, Selenium and Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Could They Help Against COVID-19? - Hira Shakoor, Jack Feehan, Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri, Habiba I. Ali, Carine Platat, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Vasso Apostolopoulos & Lily Stojanovska - Maturitas (Jan. 2021):
“To support immune function during COVID-19 disease higher dietary intakes of vitamins D, C and E, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids could be beneficial. It is worth noting however, that much of the evidence surrounding the use of these nutrients in COVID-19 patients, utilize doses too high to come solely from diet. Supplementation with higher doses of these nutrients during COVID-19 infection, have shown positive outcomes, and given their low risk profile are a sensible addition to patient care.”
To learn more about Ingredient #4 (Vitamin D) - and the 51 other dietary ingredients identified as exhibiting anti-viral and/or immune-enhancing properties - obtain a copy of the full report of AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet by pressing the button below:
Vitamin D Decreases Respiratory Syncytial Virus Induction of NF- κB−Linked Chemokines and Cytokines in Airway Epithelium while Maintaining the Antiviral State - Sif Hansdottir, Martha M. Monick, Nina Lovan, Linda Pwers, Alicia Gerke & Gary W. Hunninghake - The Journal of Immunology (11 Dec. 2009).
Vitamin Effects on the Immune System : Vitamins A and D take Centre Stage - J. Rodrigo Mora, Makoto Iwata & Ulrich H. von Andrian - National Review of Immunology (20 Jul. 2010).
Vitamin D increases the Antiviral Activity of Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro - A.G. Telcian, M.T. Zdrenghea, M.R. Edwards, V. Laza-Stanca, P. Mallia, S.L. Johnston & L.A. Stanciu - Antiviral Research (10 Nov. 2010).
Vitamin D and the Anti-Viral State - Jeremy A. Beard, Allison Bearden & Rob Striker - Journal of Clinical Virology (15 Jan. 2011).
Vitamin D: An Innate Antiviral Agent Suppressing Hepatitis C Virus in Human Hepatocytes - Meital Gal-Tanamy, Larisa Bachmetov, Amiram Ravid, Ruth Koren, Arie Erman, Ran Tur-Kaspa & Romy Zemel - Hepatology: Viral Hepatitis (25 Jul. 2011).
Vitamin D and the Immune System - Cynthia Aranow - Journal of Investigative Medicine (Aug. 2011).
Role of Fat-Soluble Vitamins A and D in the Pathogenesis of Influenza: A New Perspective - Anthony R. Mawson - International Scholarly Research Notices (19 Jul. 2012).
Effects of Vitamin D on Airway Epithelial Cell Morphology and Rhinovirus Replication - Rebecca A. Brockman-Schneider, Raymond J. Pickles & James E. Gern - PLoS One (24 Jan. 2014).
Vitamin D in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Influence on Immunity and Disease - María Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Isidoro Martínez, Luz María Medrano, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez & Salvador Resino - Frontiers in Immunology (12 March 2018).
Preventive Effects of Vitamin D on Seasonal Influenza A in Infants: A Multicenter, Randomized, Open, Controlled Clinical Trial - Zhou Jian, Du Juan, Huang Leting, Wang Youcheng, Shi Yimei & Lin Hailong - The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Aug. 2018).
Vitamin D and Influenza - Prevention or Therapy? - Beata M. Gruber-Bzura - International Journal of Molecular Science (16 Aug. 2018).
Bibliographic Research Information provided courtesy of The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M) 2020
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Learn how to protect you and your family from viruses more effectively by discovering the 52 'dietary antivirals' to include in your meals, snacks and drinks every day. Boost your immunity and fight diseases the natural way.
An 'Anti-Viral Diet' has been extensively corroborated by science and is gradually being accepted as an integral part of how people may protect themselves against viruses and treat viral illnesses - one other option to make use of alongside vaccines and antiviral medications. However, Food Science does not currently receive even 1% as much financing as pharmaceutical or vaccine-related research. 10% of the profit from sales of the 'AVD' book are being donated towards essential projects in Anti-Viral Dietary Research.
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Edouard d'Araille - Project Lead of Phase 1 of the 'AVD Research Project' - writes about an 'Anti-Viral Diet' that: "Regarding the effects of diet on disease, it is known that healthy, balanced nutrition has greater impact on immunity to viruses than any single vaccine. Science has proven this beyond a shadow of doubt."
'AVD' is a 3-Phase Research Project launched by The Academy of the Third Millennium (A3M). Phase 1 of this scientific inquiry is now complete and a summary of the findings are presented in the volume 'AVD: The Anti-Viral Diet' (2020-2022) available from this website. Information about the progress and purpose of Phases 2 & 3 of this A3M research program will be shared here and at A3M.International.
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